Key Messages

  • Long-term planning models give an insight into possible energy scenarios and do not examine technologies in detail.

  • Renewable energy sources have spatial and temporal intermittency that causes challenges for short-term system operations.

  • Including operational details of generators directly in a planning model reduces intricacy of handling separate models.

  • Operational constraints increase usage of conventional generators and reduce overall capacity needs in planning model.

  • Higher operational flexibility of conventional generators allows greater renewable penetration and reduces storage needs.


(*Ankita Singh Gaur, Anjali Jain, Rohit Bhakar, and Jyotirmay Mathur are the other authors of this paper.)