As a large developing country, India’s challenge is to meet its development aspirations in a carbon-constrained world. This study, undertaken by CSTEP, uses Sustainable Development (SD) as the overarching framework and aims at equitable access to energy, clean air and water, food, health and livelihoods and economic growth. The study connects elements of SD in an integrated bottom-up approach to understand the implications for economy, energy trajectories, emissions and costs. Any reduction of CO2 is treated as a co-benefit of the framework mentioned above. This study’s framework could serve as an alternative development paradigm for India and other developing countries.