Climate change is the biggest challenge today and will be so in the coming decades. The increase in extreme events and their impact on natural and artificial ecosystems and lives and livelihoods are conspicuous. Formulation of climate policies and planning and implementation of programmes and projects for adaptation require climate information at various spatial scales. To cater to this need and to build awareness, we conducted historical climate analysis and future climate projections at a district level for the 28 states of India—published as regional reports of the southern (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Telangana), central (Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh), western (Goa, Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Rajasthan), eastern (Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, and West Bengal), north-eastern (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, and Tripura), and northern (Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Uttarakhand, and Uttar Pradesh) states.
This report summarises the findings of the assessment for all 28 states of India. The timescale for the analysis is the near or short-term period of the 2030s (2021–2050), and it has been compared with the climate of the near past historical period (1990–2019) at a district level. Climate change projections are done for two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) or climate scenarios, namely RCP 4.5 (moderate emissions scenario) and RCP 8.5 (high emissions scenario). Historical climate data and gridded data for climate change projections are from the India Meteorological Department (IMD).