Key Messages

Urban air pollution is a complex problem, which requires a multi-pronged approach to understand its dynamics. In the current study, various aspects of air pollution over Bengaluru city were studied utilizing simultaneous reference-grade measurements (during the period July 2019 to June 2020) of fine particulate matter mass concentration (PM2.5), aerosol black carbon mass concentrations (BC), and surface ozone (O3) concentrations. The study period mean PM2.5, BC, and O3 were observed to be 26.8±11.5 µg m−3, 5.6±2.8  µg  m−3, and 25.5±12.4  ppb, respectively. Statistical methods such as principal component analysis, moving average subtraction method, conditional bivariate probability function, and concentration weighted trajectory analysis were performed to understand the dynamics of air pollution over Bengaluru and its long-range transportation pathways. Some of the major findings from the statistical analyses include (i) contrasting association in BC versus O3 and PM2.5 versus O3; (ii) around one-fourth of the observed receptor site BC was contributed by local sources/emissions; and (iii) the source locations potentially contributing to BC and PM2.5 were spatially different. In Bengaluru, long-term exposure to PM2.5 resulted in around 3413, 3393, 1016, and 147 attributable deaths for the health endpoints chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, ischemic heart disease, stroke, and lung cancer, respectively. Long-term exposure to O3 resulted in around 155 attributable deaths for respiratory diseases, as estimated by the AirQ + model. Finally, the limitations of the study in terms of data availability and analysis have been detailed.

https://doi. org/10.1007/s10661-022-09852-6