Key Messages

The performance of an electric vehicle (EV) is largely dependent on a battery and its materials composition. Battery selection is based on performance characteristics, such as energy and power density, life cycle, safety, charging/discharging rate, cost, etc. Currently, the market is dominated by Lithium-ion batteries (LiBs). The most prominent material compositions in LiBs are Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt (LNMC), Lithium Nickel Manganese Oxide (LNMO), and Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP) as cathode materials and graphite as anode material. Lithium and cobalt have lesser energy density. Also, these materials are scarce. Therefore, new material compositions are being tried to enhance the performance, environmental friendliness, and sustainability of batteries.