Studies point out that despite the Government of India's renewable energy target of 450 GW by 2030, electricity generation from coal-based thermal power plants (TPPs) will still be more than half of the total supply. TPPs release pollutants, such as sulphur dioxides (SOx), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM), which have a serious impact on human health. Coal mining and fly ash from coal combustion pollute both surface and ground water. Additionally, TPPs are responsible for around 40% of India’s total GHG emissions. Any form of climate action has to address emissions from coal power plants.