Batteries are commonly employed as energy storage systems for PV stand-alone microgrid. The instantaneous, diurnal, and seasonal variation in load and PV generation degrades the battery rapidly. This affects the life cycle cost of the system. This paper aims to combine battery storage with supercapacitor (short term) and hydrogen storage (long term) and investigate and compare the reliability and annualised life cycle cost of the system with manufacturers given life and by incorporating battery degradation.
(*Rangan Banerjee and Prakash C. Ghosh are the other authors of this paper.)