In December 2015, the MoEFCC notified emission standards for limiting Sulphur Oxides (SOx), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Particulate Matter of size <10 µm (PM10) and Mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-based Thermal Power Plants (TPPs). CSTEP estimated that the new standards can reduce the SOx emission from individual TPPs by 67-95%, NOx by 41-95% and PM10 by 50-85%. Further, with the implementation of these standards, our study found the ambient air quality in India would improve significantly. CSTEP’s study offers useful analyses on the baseline emissions from TPPs, the possible emission trajectories till 2030 (under different compliance scenarios), and cost implications for the government and private sector. It also provides estimates of avoided mortality and morbidity from reduced air pollution. The study was supported by the Shakti Sustainable Energy Foundation.